Table of Contents
Ľudmila Lacková: Iconicity and functional sentence perspective. Comparative approach to
iconicity aspect of topic – focus sequentiality
The article deals with the concept of language iconicity of the functional sentence perspective. It aims to investigate the relationship between logical mental sequence of information (known information precedes new information) and the arrangement of constituents in the utterance according to the degree of communicative dynamism (topic precedes focus). Theoretical assumptions about the dependency of the language iconicity on the functional sentence perspective and word order rules will be examined on the basis of analysis and comparison of two parallel texts, the first of which is in a language with relatively free word order (Italian) and the other in a fixed word order language (French). The purpose of my approach is to explain by terms of iconicity various possibilities of ranking the elements in an utterance so to provide a semiotic understanding of language strategies.
functional sentence perspective, iconicity, sequentiality, word order
Kateřina Kubová – Ondřej Dufek: Klaus’s Amnesty: Linguistic Means of Minority Construction in Discourse
The article presents an analysis of discourse on amnesty proclaimed in 2013 by the then Czech president Václav Klaus on the basis of critical discourse analysis, specifically discourse-historical approach. It shows some untypical features of such a discourse, particularly the use of minority position as one’s own advantage. It analyzes linguistic and discursive means of positive or negative presentation, fallacious arguments and other phenomena to show how political communication’s principle of personalization functions in this concrete discourse.
critical discourse analysis, political communication, amnesty, Václav Klaus
Marek Nagy – Vladimír Matlach : Semantic features production in adult speakers
Theory of semantic features plays an important role as a representational tool in many of the major theories of cognitive modelling in language processing. A necessary condition for testing theories that use this form of representation is the creation of empirically well-founded model of semantic features representation. Our research project is generally focused on 1) obtaining data characterizing the production of semantic features of lexical units in adult Czech speakers, 2) processing these data into interactive web database and 3) analysis of data with various statistical methods. This paper presents a theoretical framework for research, research methods, demonstration of selected analysis on a sample of 60 concepts and finally it presents the possible utilization of corpus data thus conceived.
semantic features, production norms, mental representation, lexical meaning, meaning representation
Petra Martinková: Thematic Progressions in President Obama’s Speeches
This contribution applies the framework of thematic progressions (Daneš 1968, 1974) to President Obama’s speeches. Thematic progression is one of the tools for revealing the cohesion of a text. This method is based on defining the theme as ‘what the speaker is talking about‘, and the rheme presents ‘what is told about the theme‘ (compare with initial position of the theme in Hallidayan concept, e.g. 1975). Daneš described some basic types of thematic progressions which are based on functional sentence perspective realized on higher layers of the text. The material for revealing thematic development consists of two Obama’s speeches. This contribution presents the comparison of Obama’s second victory speech and Obama’s speech at a prayer vigil for the Newtown shooting victims in the scope of thematic progressions.
text analysis, theme, rheme, thematic progression, coherence, cohesion, Obama, president speech
Jaroslav Pszczolka: The invention of the equal temperament
An important milestone in the development of musical thinking is the invention of equal temperament tuning in the 16th and 17th centuries. The problem of the difference between 12 pure fifths and seventh octaves in Europe is known as the Pythagorean comma, it was dealt for more than 2,000 years by musical theorists. Various tunning systems were created in order to confront this problematic. The most convincing matematically invention was the Equal temperament tuning. The problem with the uniform stratification of intervals within the octave was solved in ancient China. There has been efforts to mathematically precise the execution of ritual music of the imperial court. And is here for the first time, in the late 16th century, when it was managed to resolve the situation with the new options that the discovery of equal temperament has brought. The discoverer was a high-ranking nobleman of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Zaiyu. In 1584, he first published his findings regarding the equal temperament tuning, which is more than half a century before it is mentioned in Europe (Marine Mersenne, 1636)
partial tones, analysis, aesthetic function, musical thinking, music theory, pythagorean intonation, equal temperament, semiotics, mean-tone temperament, sign-generating
Michal Jurka: Sprachliche Interaktion: Eine Einführung Von Anhand 22 Klassikern. Peter Auer, Max Niemeyer, 1999.Translated by: Jiří Nekvapil, Petr Kaderka, Marek Nekula, Vít Dovalil, Ivo Vasiljev, Marián Sloboda: Jazyková interakce. Prague: NLN, 2014.